Fat is present in every milk and milk products. The cow’s milk contains fat in the form of glycerides. Fat in cow’s milk also is a scarce source of essential fatty acids . The content of milk fat changes with type of milk:
Per 100 ml of whole milk 3.9 g is fat is present.
Semi Skimmed Milk provides 1.7g of Fat per 100ml.
Skim milk contains 0.2 grams of fat per 100 ml. Recently, 1% of milk is also available.
Mixture of Skimmed Milk and Semi-Skimmed Milk includes 100 grams per fat or less than 1g.
The main carbohydrate of milk is a disaccharides called lactose. It contains two simple sugars, glucose and galactose, which is sweeter than sucrose (sugarcane). Lactose supports the absorption of calcium and phosphorus and synthesis of many B vitamins in the small intestine. Lactose digestion in the human body is done by an enzyme lactase. People suffering from Lactose Intolerance are unable to digest the main sugar (lactose) in milk.Lactose intolerance is a problem for some people but it can be controlled. People who are having problem in lactose digestion should never consume milk or any dairy products. People with lactose deficiency can have a few milk products. Some milk products contain less lactose than other dairy products, and they can be more useful for lactose intolerance. This includes:
Milk substitutes like yogurt, curd , aged cheese and butter are usually not a problem.
Due to heating, some of the lactose gets destroyed. Hot milk products, such as boiled incubated milk may be preferred over suppressed substances.
Vitamins and Minerals
Milk and dairy products are excellent sources of vitamins and minerals, especially calcium. There is an important source of vitamins A and B such as thiamine, riboflavin and nicotinic acid in milk, but this is also a minor source of vitamin C and vitamin E. There is also vitamin B12.
Important minerals of milk are calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. But it is however a poor source of iron. Calcium is the essential nutrient for numerous bodily functions for bone and teeth formation and care, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission and also regulating the heart’s beat.
There are 3.3% total protein in the milk. Milk protein contains 9 essential amino acids. Mammary gland produces milk, but 60% of the amino acids used for protein prepared from cow’s Milk. Total milk protein content and amino acid composition depend on individual animal species and genetics.
Milk proteins are generally categorized into two main categories according to their chemical composition and physical properties. The casein family has phosphorus and will coagulate or precipitate at a pH of 4.6 to the pulmonary pH. The serum protein doesn’t contain phosphorus and these protein remains in solution at a pH of 4.6. The principle of curd formation , coagulation, at reduced pH is the basis for cheese and curd formation. In milk, about 82% of the milk proteins is casein and the remaining 18% are serum or whey proteins.